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Seismic Survey Technologies
Guidelines for Authors
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To the 80th birthday of S.V. Goldin
Letter to the readers
S.V. Goldin’s legacy
Some aspects of calculation of the seismic migration operator with the method of S.V. Goldin
Seismic ray-theoretical migration operator was derived by S.V. Goldin based on the expression that relates the traveltime derivatives with the geometrical spreading factor. The derivation of this basic formula, which is essential also in the dynamic theory of elastic wave propagation, and, in addition, underlies many algorithms for kinematical inversion is complicated, overloaded with mathematical details and suffers from lack of geophysical interpretation. The paper proposes a method to obtain the desired expression, attracting minimum of mathematical details and operating with simple and well-known geophysical concepts. Also, a factor is obtained that generalizes the result to a wider class of models of the medium.
GEOLAB Ltd, Ordzhonikidze str., 12/4, Moscow, 119071, Russia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Theoretical solutions combination with real seismic observations
It is fundamental for the effective application of theoretical solutions in practice to consider the way of their optimal compatibility with the data obtained in a real experiment. There are two promising ways to carry out such a research: to transform the observations to enhance their compatibility with the model assumptions and to analyse the influence of a real experiment properties on the theoretical solution. As the transformation that provides the best match of initial data to models, which are used for inverse problems solutions, it is proposed to use the structural decomposition of the investigated medium and the observed wave field, corresponding to a complicated three-dimensional model, into the set of local quasi-one-dimensional models of target objects with ideal conditions for seismic source and receiver. This approach was used as a basis for the spectral-statistical method, and after that was developed with the creation of complex seismic decomposition technology. The result is the formation of new sets of observations in the form of “pseudo seismograms”, corresponding to the local objects of the medium. These seismograms are used in the implementation of the inverse problem solution in spectral or time domain. In the process of preparing a “pseudo seismograms” the decomposition of signals to eliminate variations in the waveform associated with changes in the conditions of excitation and reception of seismic signal as well as their transmission through the medium is carried out.
Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, SB RAS, Acad. Koptyuga prosp., 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: email@example.com
D.A. Neklyudov, M.I. Protasov
Wave tracing for 3D cross-well tomography
In this paper we present аn approach for two-point ray tracing in 3D medium using bending method. It is based on a modified Fermat’s principle which can provide more reliable ray paths and traveltimes in complex medium. Model is parameterized with Chebyshev polynomials. This fact introduces algorithmic advantages for the ray tracing because travel times and derivatives can be calculated analytically. Hence nonlinear conjugate gradient method can be applied efficiently. The proposed approach is oriented for 3D crosswell traveltime tomography.
Институт нефтегазовой геологии и геофизики им. А.А. Трофимука СО РАН, 630090, Новосибирск, просп. Акад. Коптюга, 3, Россия, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Ya.V. Bazaikin¹, D.R. Kolyukhin², V.V. Lisitsa², M.A. Novikov³, G.V. Reshetova⁴, T.S. Khachkova²
Effect of CT-image scale on macro-scale properties estimation
We present analysis of sandstone micro-CT scans obtained with different resolution. We show that use of fine resolution (about 1 micrometer per voxel) do not provide valuable information about the core structure and for the pore surface analysis and makes the sample nonrepresentative even for porosity estimation. Scans with resolution of 3–5 μm per voxel allow to get statistically reliable estimates of the reciprocal pore-to-core distribution, topological properties of the pore space and transport properties of the sample. Using this information one can reconstruct the macroscopic model of poroelastic media.
¹Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, SB RAS, Acad. Koptyuga prosp., 4, Novosibisk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
²Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, SB RAS, Acad. Koptyuga prosp., 3, Novosibisk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
³Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, SB RAS, Acad. Lavrentjeva prosp., 6, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
⁴Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogova str., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
T.I. Chichinina¹, I.R. Obolentseva², G.A. Dugarov²
Estimating applicability of the displacement-discontinuity model using experimental data on measurements of elastic-wave velocities
The effective model of a medium with parallel fractures in an isotropic background rock known as the Linear Slip Transversely Isotropic (LS TI) model is revised. This model of TI symmetry is identified by four independent elements of elastic-constant matrix instead of five independent elements inherent to TI symmetry. The fifth element c13 ceases to be independent in the LS model. As we have demonstrated previously, this leads to violating physics’ laws and Curie’s symmetry principle. In the present paper, we analyze a wide variety of published experimental data on elastic waves’ velocities from the standpoint of their correspondence to the LS model. The experimentally measured c13-constant is compared with the c13-constant in the LS TI model calculated as the function of independent constants cii. The comparison results confirm our conclusion on impracticability of LS TI model when applied for arbitrary wave-propagation directions, i. e. differing from the symmetry axis and the isotropy plane of the model.
¹Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, 152, Mexico D.F., 07730, Mexico, e-mail: email@example.com
²Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, SB RAS, Acad. Koptyuga prosp., 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
E.I. Landa¹, D.A. Neklyudov², M.I. Protasov², G.V. Reshetova³, V.G. Khaidukov², V.A. Tcheverda²
Seismic shooting on floating ice: peculiarities of waves’ propagation and noise suppression
Seismic exploration in the Russian Far North in summer is complicated in a large extent by shallow waters, like swamps, rivers, lakes and other covering large areas, hence winter is more usual for seismic acquisition there. The same is true for transition zones. In winter, it is possible, at least technically, to use floating ice there and apply the developed technology for onshore seismic exploration. However, in winter there is another complicating factor – intensive seismic noise generated by sources placed onto ice covering shallow waters. It is well known that this noise is caused by flexural waves propagating along the ice. These waves are much slower than surface waves and, hence, seem to be easily suppressed by the modern versions of f-k (frequency-wavenumber) filters. Unfortunately, this type of noise suppression straightforward application fails. To understand this behaviour the representative series of numerical experiments were conducted which prove that the main noise component is formed by multiple conversions of flexural waves to the body waves and vice versa. Ways to reduce this noise by special processing procedures are proposed and discussed.
¹Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978, Tel-Aviv, 6997801, P.O. Box 39040, Israel
²Институт нефтегазовой геологии и геофизики им. А.А. Трофимука СО РАН, 630090, Новосибирск, просп. Акад. Коптюга, 3, Россия, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
³Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, SB RAS, Acad. Lavrentiev prosp., 6, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Attenuation spectra of compressional and shear waves in sandstone and monocrystals of natural quartz
The paper shows an experimental study of the amplitude-frequency dependence of P- and S-wave attenuation in sandstones and in natural quartz monocrystals under a hydrostatic pressure of 10 MPa. Measurements were conducted on samples with use of the reflected waves method at a pulse frequency of 1 MHz in the amplitude range ε ~ (0.3–2.0) × 10-⁶. The P-, S-waves attenuation spectrum, QP-¹, QS-¹, in sandstone presents the amplitude-dependent relaxation peak. The bigger the signal amplitudes – the lower attenuation is observed. The wave attenuation spectra (QP-¹, QS-¹) in intact quartz is close to 1/f dependence, in the fractured quartz for a QP-¹ is close to the same dependence, but QS-¹(f) has a peak. The mechanism of nonstandard inelasticity that distorts a waveform and influences attenuation spectrum is discussed. The reflected signal with smaller disturbance results in the simpler spectrum, the peak spectrum form is observed when a specifically complicated pulse is the case.
Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, SB RAS, Acad. Koptyuga prosp., 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: mashinskiiEI@ipgg.sbras.ru
T.R. Yalaev¹, I.O. Bayuk², N.F. Tarelko³, V.V. Abashkin³
Connection between thermal and elastic properties of bentheimer sandstone
The paper addresses the relation between the effective thermal and elastic properties. As an example of such a relation the Bentheimer sandstone is used. To achieve this goal, the effective medium theory is used to create a mathematical model of the effective physical properties of the sandstone. A relation between the dynamic elastic properties and thermal conductivity of dry and fluid-saturated core samples has been demonstrated. To mimic the in situ conditions the samples were uniaxially loaded up to the 21 MPa. Based on the created model a change in elastic properties has been predicted from the thermal conductivity measurements in the same experiment. The model parameters change due to applied load is shown.
¹Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutskiy per., 9, Moscow oblast, Dolgoprudny, 141700, Russia, e-mail: email@example.com
²Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS, B. Gruzinskaya st., 10, build. 1, Moscow, 123242, Russia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
³Schlumberger Moscow Research Center, Pudovkina st., 13, Moscow, 119285, Russia, e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Yu.I. Kolesnikov¹, K.V. Fedin¹,²
Application of passive standing wave method in engineering seismics: physical modelling and field experiment
Results of three-dimensional physical modelling and field experiments are presented to demonstrate the ability of using passive standing wave method to detect and delineate underground hollows, to find weakened zones in mine pillars and to test wall structures. It is shown that accumulation of amplitude spectra of noise records allows estimating the frequencies and amplitudes of elastic standing waves, which can be used for inhomogeneities localization.
¹Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics SB RAS, Acad. Koptyuga prosp., 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: email@example.com
²Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: fedinkv@ ipgg.sbras.ru
Reflections data processing technique for OBS records
A six-step processing scheme for OBS reflections data is proposed in the paper. The processing is based on nonlinear reduction and local slant stacking of the selected reflections. The full processing includes (among other things) velocity analysis and kinematic migration. The proposed technique is applied for processing of two OBS records in the central basin of Japan sea. It was found very good agreement between obtained velocities in the layers of sediment and well log data. Resulted time section of the migration procedure agrees with single-channel well seismic profiling data.
V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, FEB RAS, Baltiiskaya str., 43, Vladivostok, 690041,Russia, e-mail: Medvedev@poi.dvo.ru
M.A. Ryabinskiy, D.B. Finikov
Deghosting in marine seismic data processing. Part 2
This paper is a continuation of the previous one of the same name, the paper considers the deghosting problem in marine seismic data processing. The previous paper described the general problem and its solutions in case of horizontally deep-towed streamers. This part considers the case of slanted streamers and pairs of horizontal streamers, one towed vertically above the other. Kinematic filtering solutions of deghosting problem for this kind of acquisitions are described in detail in this article.
Yandex.Terra (Seismotech, Ltd.), Derbenevskaya naberejnaya str., 11, BC Pollars, Off. A-612, Moscow, 115114, Russia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
V.D. Suvorov¹, E.A. Melnik¹, Z.R. Mishenkina¹, A.S. Salnikov²
Velocity model of the Сhulman depression (Аldan shield) according to the first arrivals data
The deep structure of the Mesozoic Chulman depression overlaying the Archean basement at the junction of the Aldan and Stanovoy lithosphere blocks is studied in the paper. Comparison of forward ray tracing and tomography shows that when a high vertical gradient of the velocity is a case, the tomography travel times does not correspond to the observed data. Beneath the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of 0.3–1.2 km thickness and velocity 3.4–4.4 km/s heterogeneous intermediate layer (probably Paleozoic age) 0–4.0 km thick and of 5.0–5.9 km/s velocity was discovered. At the base of this layer velocity increases up to 5.9–6.3 km/s, which is characteristic for crystalline crustal rocks.
¹Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, SB RAS, Acad. Koptyuga prosp., 3, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
²Joint Stock Company “Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Mineral Resources”, Krasnyi prosp., 67, Novosibirsk, 630091, Russia, e-mail: email@example.com