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Seismic Survey Technologies
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CONTENT
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V.B. Levyant*, I.B. Petrov*, S.A. Pankratov**
pages 3-11
Investigation of the characteristics of longitudinal and converted waves backscatter response from fractured reservoir zones
In this paper we investigate the method of numerical simulation of the nature of longitudinal and converted waves caused by the scattering of elastic energy from fractured zones in massive rocks. It is investigated the effect of density, slope and character filling cracks on the energy level of the longitudinal PP and PS-wave exchange with registration of vertical and horizontal components of the seismic signal. It is obtained significant differences in their levels. It is shown that the ratio of the energy of the various components of longitudinal and converted waves can be used to predict the nature of the filling cracks and tilt and potential for these relationships to estimate the density of the gas-saturated vertical cracks in the previously identified fractured reservoirs.
*OAO "TSGE", MOSCOW
**MFTI, MOSCOW
pages 12-17
Оценка напряжённо-деформированного состояния на основе структурно-скоростных моделей - новые возможности в решении задач нефтегазовой геологии
pages 18-23
Методика сейсмической инверсии с помощью генетического алгоритма с последующим использованием результатов инверсии при моделировании коллекторских свойств резервуара
A new reservoir modeling workflow is proposed using a non-linear multi-trace seismic inversion method. The input is formed by a post stack seismic dataset and relevant well logs without any further information. Geological modeling constitutes the second stage of the process. First stage results are used to perform property population on the geological model. This two stage process allows separating inversion from modeling. The method naturally extends to other logs which have meaningful physical relationship to the seismic data, such as porosity or density.
pages 24-28
Распознавание многопризнаковых геофизических аномалий на основе проверки многомерной гипотезы
Algorithm of determine much sign anomalies is proposed. The method is based on check of much measure statistical hypothesis. The hindrances are excluding in process determination.
pages 29-32
Оптимизация технологии сейсморазведки 3D при крупных съёмках
Shooting of large 3D seismic surveys can be problematic with the equipment usually utilized in the practice of seismic surveys. Expenditures for large 3D surveys are high, and the target of the contractor is to minimize the acquisition costs, i.e. to make shooting of such surveys economically sound. The zipper technique is one of the ways to minimize the acquisition costs of large surveys.
The footprint of zipper geometries can be removed at the data processing stage. This technique is efficient due to much faster field operations, resulting in significantly lower operational costs.
pages 33-38
Возможность создания однонаправленных антенн малых волновых размеров для сейсморазведки. Часть 1. Приближение плоских волн
Classical analysis of narrow directed antenna creation is considered. Some limitations for dimension of narrow
directed antenna on the surface and in the bore-holes are demonstrated. Possibility of small narrow directed antenna construction according to some works by Shelkunov are proposed. There are theoretical calculations for plane waves and some variants of hydrophone and geophones combinations are proposed.
pages 39-48
Пути снижения отпечатка системы наблюдений на сейсмические данные 3D и 3D/3C
The article describes the criteria for assessing the footprint imposed by 3D acquisition geometries and contains the results of comparative analysis of the bin attributes for several alternative source-receiver configurations. It has been shown that the variability of the bin attributes in the full-fold regions of the surveys
is reduced due to less number of the receiver lines being rolled to shoot the next swath as well as due to higher density of acquired traces and smaller bin sizes. These conclusions are especially true for the converted-wave (
PS
) attributes. The author has formulated recommendations on the reduction of the acquisition footprint in case of 3D and 3D/3C surveys.
pages 49-55
Уточнение скоростной модели по данным ВСП с использованием миграции кратных волн
We investigate the new method that combines the migration of VSP data and updating of the velocity model. The method is based on the comparison of subsurface images obtained by using different types of waves: the primary reflections and surface-related multiples. As a measure of similarity of the images we
use the functional based on cross-correlation. Estimation of the velocity model parameters is carried out by maximization of this functional. Therefore the resulting velocity model provides the maximal similarity between images obtained by using the primary reflections and surface-related multiples. We develop an iterative
procedure to maximize the functional and demonstrate the efficiency of the method using the synthetic walk-away data. The method can be used for very short VSP receiver arrays and allows us to estimate the interval velocities below receivers, which is considered to be a
challenge with VSP acquisition geometry.
pages 56-63
Методика отработки трёхмерных крестовых систем наблюдения в условиях юго-востока Русской платформы
During last years at searchers of oil and gas objects the great attention is given to increase of geological effectiveness of seismic operations 3D in particular optimization of geometry of examination diagrams. At the same time not seldom the tendency is farmed with is possible to determine as aspiration for using of everywhere equal "superfluous" methodic, affected on productivity of operations 3D and often not considered peculiarities of seismic geological conditions of concrete territory. It was held the comparison of general characteristics of cross shots with one-element and multiple-element models of source points (SP), and also seismic materials, recovered as a result of collation methodics using. It is distinguished that the presence of little advantages of cross shots characteristics with using of one-element models of source points in a plan of more steady distribution of traces at azimuths and expulsions, is not reflected in no way on real seismic data, especially having complicated wave pattern, caused by salinedome tectonics. It is shown that holding of seismic operations at the diagram "cross" with using of multiple-element models of source points allows holding of 3D shootings at shorts terms.
pages 64-76
Возможности изучения терригенных коллекторов наземной и скважинной сейсморазведкой в Восточной Сибири
Reservoir characteristics of hydrocarbon horizons of Verchnechonsky field are influenced mainly by changing of rocks lithology and also by local salinization of rock pore space. Limited possibilities of attribute prognosis of productive horizons characteristics on 3D surface seismic data are here exhausted, so a great practical interest is estimating of near-borehole reservoir characteristics on VSP data. Using of different wave types allows calculating cross-sections and maps of impedances, which by means of using of correlation dependences are recounted in porosity maps. Together with elastic impedance determining on longitudinal reflected waves and elastic shear impedance determining on converted reflected waves, the first time shear impedance was calculated on monotype shear reflected waves, recorded at VSP with a undirected source of vibrations. When determining shear impedances
on reflected waves, arising at oblique angle of a ray incidence on the reflecting boundary the preference is suggested to give for monotype shear waves, which allow to preserve the physical sense of the determined shear impedances when the angle of the ray incidence
is close to the normal one.
pages 77-98
Комплексная технология прогноза коллекторских свойств по данным сейсморазведки и ГИС
We present the comprehensive sequential approach of integrated seismic and well data interpretation which allows one to obtain the volumetric model of the spatial distribution of the hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs. The essential parts of discussed technology are the follows: new algorithm of the 3D velocity model building which ensures the accurate time-depth conversion and
trustful low-frequency velocity model; Rock Physics modeling of the sensitivity of elastic properties and seismic attributes to variations of pore fluid, reservoir properties and lithology; up-to-date simultaneous AVA seismic inversion technique and Bayesian technique of probabilistic prediction of reservoir presence and their
saturation.
pages 99-103
Перспективы подготовки новых структурных объектов в Среднем Приобье
pages 104-108
Использование сейсмических данных для определения координат точек приёма при проведении работ МОВ ОГТ в транзитной зоне
Any geophysical explorations (include seismic) are useless without of exact coordinates of observations points. Classical sea- and land explorations has in mind exact coordinates of shot- and receiver points (to DGPS or other hardware precision). Totally different situation exists by seismic explorations in transition zones. In this cases the receivers coordinates on the bottom are very different from the the coordinates of receivers drop-in-water points. In view of NMO has the highest influence on appearance of seismic wave field (reflection method CDP) - it is very important to know exact receivers coordinates on the bottom. It is possible to calculate these coordinates by use of ordinary seismic data sets.
pages 109-112
Использование методов сейсморазведки при оценке качества уплотнения насыпных грунтов
The article deals with methods of the rapid estimation of the substituted soil compaction using non-disturbing seismic surveying methods. The methods have been tested under the conditions of long-term storage facility construction of decommissioned compartments of nuclear submarines in Saida Bay on the Barents Sea shore.
pages 113-117
Применение волновых методов для определения длины свай
This publication discusses ways to address the engineering challenges in determining the length of piles of various designs. The proposed methods are based on acoustic-wave and radar techniques. The combination of surface and borehole observations allow to solve this engineering problem for piles of various designs.
N. I. Geza, S. S. Polozov, V. I. Yushin
pages 118-126
On energetic efficacy of seismic sourses
Methods and results of energy measurements of seismic oscillations which is generated by sources of very large or very small power are expounded and considered. The major task of these surveys consist of comparative estimating of such sources efficiency and also retrieval of most significant physical and structural parameters which is responsible for their seismic efficiency. Method of comparative experiments in far zone is based on fundamental states of optimum receiving theory and in near zone is based on direct measurements of seismic energy. The results of comparative experiments of powerful explosions and vibrations seismic effect, whish
is evidencing that efficiency of the least one is two order higher than explosions, is given. In addition, extra-heavy vibrator high strainseismic efficiency factor is validated by direct measurements of seismic energy in his near field. Along with this even direct measurements
of seismic energy of low-power nonexplosive pulse sources suggests about their very low efficiency factor. The attempt to reveal physical causes of this differences is maded.
IPGG SB RAS, NOVOSIBIRSK